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Clinical Studies

CBD Effects – Clinical Studies and Data


  1. CBD may be effective for reducing certain types of pain associated with conditions such as fibromyalgia.

Cannabis has been used to treat pain since 2900 B.C., with use originating in Chinese medicine. Researchers believe that components like CBD may be responsible for these effects.

The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating functions like pain sensation. The body produces neurotransmitters called endocannabinoids that bind to cannabinoid receptors.

Studies show that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by targeting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation, and interacting with neurotransmitters. Preclinical evidence also suggests that it may be effective for rheumatic diseases like fibromyalgia, per research from 2021.

Study: Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for use of cannabinoids to relieve pain in patients with malignant diseases.

Results: 15 of the 18 trials demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoids as compared to placebo. The most commonly reported adverse effects were generally well tolerated, mild to moderate. The main side effects were drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and dry mouth. There is evidence that cannabinoids are safe and modestly effective in neuropathic pain and also for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases.

43% of patients at the end of 2 weeks of treatment reported more than 30% reduction in pain intensity in comparison with 21% of patients on the placebo.

 “The target dose for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases is most likely about 10 actuations per day, which is about 27 mg tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 25 mg cannabidiol (CBD), and the highest approved recommended dose is 12 actuations per day (32 mg THC/30 mg CBD).”

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5922297


Cannabidiol Use for Fibromyalgia: Prevalence of Use and Perceptions of Effectiveness in a Large Online Survey.

“This article indicates that CBD use is common among people with fibromyalgia, and the results suggest that many derive benefit from using CBD across multiple symptoms domains.”

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33400996

Study: Cannabis and Pain: A Clinical Review

“Starting with the Chinese around 2900 B.C., many civilizations have transcribed their use of cannabis for a variety of conditions, from joint pain and muscle spasms to conditions such as gout and malaria.”

There are multiple randomized, controlled clinical trials that show cannabis as an effective pharmacotherapy for pain.

... Results indicated a significant decrease in pain with the medium cannabis dose and a significant increase in pain with the high dose. No differences were observed with the low cannabis dose.

...Collectively, this research indicates that although the results of experimental studies with healthy adults are mixed, there is converging evidence to support the notion that cannabis can produce acute pain-inhibitory effects among individuals with chronic pain.”



CBD may be effective for reducing pain associated with conditions such as arthritis.

2022 Study: Cannabidiol as a treatment for arthritis and joint pain

Results: CBD use was associated with improvements in pain (83%), physical function (66%), and sleep quality (66%).

The overall cohort reported a 44% reduction in pain after CBD use. The osteoarthritis group had a greater percentage reduction and point reduction in pain compared to rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune arthritis.

60.5% of respondents reported a reduction or cessation of other medications after CBD use.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9400326

According to the Arthritis Foundation, there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that some people with arthritis who use CBD report noticeable pain relief, improved sleep, or reduced anxiety.

An estimated 54 million Americans currently suffer from debilitating arthritis.

Source: www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/healthy-living/managing-pain/pain-relief-solutions/cbd-for-arthritis-pain


  1. CBD could reduce symptoms related to some mental health disorders – depression, anxiety, and even psychosis.

Medical Review by Melinda Ratini, MS, DO, May 2023:

  • A 1993 study found less anxiety in people who took CBD.
  • People in a small study published in 2003 reported feeling less anxious after taking CBD than those who took a placebo.
  • Two studies published in 2011 found CBD reduced symptoms in people diagnosed with social anxiety disorder.
  • A study published in 2019 showed CBD worked better than a placebo for teenagers with social anxiety.
  • Young people whose regular anxiety medicine wasn’t working well showed improvement after adding CBD in a study published in 2022.
  • Results from the first phase of an ongoing trial using CBD and other cannabis compounds published in 2022 found the medication could ease symptoms over 4 weeks.
  • Almost 2 dozen animal studies found CBD can have an antidepressant effect.
  • A study of people with cancer and chronic pain published in 2012 found an improvement in symptoms of depression. The drug tested contained CBD and THC.
  • In a survey of more than 2,000 people, more than 1 in 6 reported using CBD to manage depression. Almost two-thirds of them said it worked very well or moderately well.
  • The study published in 2022 on young people that showed a benefit for anxiety symptoms also found significant improvement in depression symptoms.

Source: www.webmd.com/cannabinoids/cbd-depression-anxiety

CBD use has been shown to improve some symptoms related to mood disorders. Researchers are currently investigating how CBD may be used in the treatment of other mental health disorders.

CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for some mental health disorders leading many people who live with these conditions to become interested in this natural treatment approach.

A 2020 literature review on CBD and mood disorders found that multiple studies suggest CBD has properties that may help reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and even psychosis.

A 2019 study also found that CBD was effective in reducing PTSD-related symptoms in adults.

Study: Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Mood Disorders: A Systematic Review


Study: Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series



  1. CBD May alleviate certain cancer-related symptoms

CBD may help reduce some cancer-related symptoms and side effects related to cancer treatment, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain, according to research published in 2022.

Cannabidiol (CBD) in Cancer Management

Preclinical and clinical research indicates that CBD has a wide range of therapeutic effects, and many of them are relevant to the management of cancer.”

“A cross-sectional survey in 926 patients at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre… approximately 51% judged cannabis to be of ‘major benefit’ and 39% of ‘moderate benefit’.

An anonymous online survey of 612 US-based members of the Breastcancer.org and Healthline.com communities with a self-reported diagnosis of breast cancer within 5 years found that 42% used cannabis for relief of symptoms (including pain (78%), insomnia (70%), anxiety (57%), stress (51%) and nausea/vomiting (46%)) with 46% of the belief that cannabis can treat the cancer itself.”



  1. CBD May have neuroprotective properties – Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s, Seizures, Epilepsy, Cerebral Palsy

CBD may provide benefits for those with neurological disorders. A 2022 study suggests that nabiximols (Sativex) spray containing both CBD and THC may help reduce pain and muscle spasticity in people living with multiple sclerosis (MS).

The oromucosal spray Nabiximols demonstrated an improvement in reducing MS spasticity, pain, and quality of life with a tolerated adverse effect. Oral cannabinoids are significantly effective for treating MS pain and spasticity.

Study: The Efficacy of Cannabis on Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptoms



Research from 2017 indicated that CBD oil helped reduce seizure activity in children with Dravet syndrome. 

Study: Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome

Results: The median frequency of convulsive seizures per month decreased from 12.4 to 5.9 with cannabidiol.


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved one CBD product, Epidiolex, for the treatment of several seizure disorders and seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC is a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and other body areas. 


There’s also some evidence that CBD may also be effective in improving the symptoms of other neurological conditions, such as:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Huntington’s disease
  • autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
  • motor disorders like cerebral palsy

Study: The Role of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders



  1. CBD May alleviate symptoms of Autism

Study: Cannabidiol in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study 

Result: "the patient experienced a reduction in negative behaviors, including violent outbursts, self-injurious behaviors, and sleep disruptions. There was an improvement in social interactions, concentration, and emotional stability. A combination of high CBD and low-dose THC oil was demonstrated to be an effective treatment option for managing symptoms associated with autism, leading to a better quality of life for both the patient and the caregivers."

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9509693/

CBD-enriched cannabis for autism spectrum disorder: an experience of a single center in Turkey and reviews of the literature


The study included 33 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were followed up between January 2018 and August 2020. The mean age was 7.7 years. The average daily dosage of cannabidiol (CBD) was 0.7 mg/kg/day.

The main improvements of the treatment were as follows: a decrease in behavioral problems was reported in 10 patients (32.2%), an increase in expressive language was reported in 7 patients (22.5%), improved cognition was reported in 4 patients (12,9%), an increase in social interaction was reported in 3 patients (9.6%), and a decrease in stereotypes was reported in 1 patient (3.2%). The parents reported improvement in cognition among patients who adhered to CBD-enriched cannabis treatment for over two years.


  1. CBD May alleviate ALS symptoms

 Research examining the effects of CBD for symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has shown mostly positive results. While CBD does not cure the disease, it can help manage symptoms and improve quality of living. Here are some general findings:

  • CBD has been found to ease pain due to its analgesic properties
  • It helps reduce muscle tension and induces relaxation
  • It acts as a bronchodilator, opening airways so that people with ALS can breathe easier
  • It has shown the ability to reduce or slow the overproduction of saliva which leads to drooling
  • It stimulates the appetite, enhances diet and induces sleep
  • Research going back to 2007 found that CBD has anti-inflammatory actions and delayed the progression of neuroinflammation caused by ALS. In a study using mice with ALS symptoms, researchers discovered an increase in survival of 56% when cannabinoids were introduced to CB1 and CB2 receptors. It was also found that cannabinoids exert antioxidant actions, target multiple neurotoxic pathways, and may become a valuable treatment for ALS.

Source: www.drjimcollins.com/cbd-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-some-research-findings

Study: Cannabis for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: What is the patients’ view?

“There were 129 respondents and 28 reported the use of cannabis (21.7%) to relieve symptoms of ALS. Participants mostly reported the use of cannabidiol (CBD) oil and cannabis weed and declared benefits both on motor (rigidity, cramps, fasciculations) and non-motor (sleep quality, pain, emotional state, quality of life, depression) symptoms and only eight reported minor adverse reactions (drowsiness, euphoria and dry mouth).

Study conclusion: Cannabinoids could be an important addition to the spectrum of treatment options for ALS symptoms. Patients are calling for it.”



  1. May alleviate symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

Study: CBD reduces plaque, improves cognition in model of familial Alzheimer's (2021)

A two-week course of high doses of CBD helps restore the function of two proteins key to reducing the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaque, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, and improves cognition in an experimental model of early onset familial Alzheimer's, investigators report.

The investigators report for the first time that CBD normalizes levels and function, improving cognition as it also reduces levels of the immune protein IL-6, which is associated with the high inflammation levels found in Alzheimer's. 

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210309192548.htm

A 2019 review suggests that CBD could help suppress factors that cause Alzheimer’s disease and that it might be more effective when used in combination with THC. 

Study: A Review on Studies of Marijuana for Alzheimer’s Disease – Focusing on CBD, THC



  1. May benefit women suffering from endometriosis

In the past, cannabis was widely used to ease dysmenorrhoea and other gynaecological pains (Russo, 2002). More recent survey studies also report the efficacy of cannabis products in easing endometriosis pain (Armour et al., 2019; Reinert and Hibner, 2019; Sinclair et al., 2020).

Recent studies have focused on the endocannabinoid system to uncover the mystery of endometriosis and suggest that modulators of the endocannabinoid system might have a role in the inflammation, cell migration and proliferation mechanisms in the occurrence and maintenance of endometriosis, which make cannabinoids a potential drug of choice (Castaneto et al., 2014; Kis et al., 2019; Luschnig and Schicho, 2019; Sanchez et al., 2017).

Study: Cannabidiol as a potential novel treatment for endometriosis by its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiangiogenic effects in an experimental rat model



  1. May benefit heart health

High blood pressure is linked to higher risks of several health conditions, including stroke, heart attack, and metabolic syndrome.

Research indicates that CBD may be beneficial for people with high blood pressure because it can influence the contractions of the heart muscle and help widen blood vessels.

For example, one study from 2020 that included 26 healthy men found that treatment with 600 milligrams of CBD for 7 days led to significant reductions in blood pressure in the short term compared with a placebo group. However, the effect was lost after 7 days.

Study: Therapeutic Applications of Cannabinoids in Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure



Study: The effects of acute and sustained cannabidiol dosing for seven days on the haemodynamics in healthy men: A randomised controlled trial



  1. CBD may help in Sports Recovery

Study: Potential Role of Cannabidiol on Sports Recovery: A Narrative Review

The use of cannabidiol (CBD) among athletes is becoming extensive and frequent.

The use of CBD among athletes has considerably increased and is still accelerating. 

Evidence has shown that a third of cyclists, triathletes, and runners are or have been cannabinoids users (mostly ≥ 40 years of age, male).

A quarter of university athletes report using cannabis-related products (Docter et al., 2020). Especially in contact sports like rugby, the use rate of CBD is 28%, increasing with age, and reporting pain relief and sleep quality improvements as perceived benefits (Kasper et al., 2020).

There is evidence that suggests some beneficial properties such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidants among others.

Some CBD products have been shown to contain significant levels of other banned cannabinoids, like THC (Lachenmeier and Diel, 2019). Besides, there is evidence of the use of synthetic cannabinoids, such as JWH-018 and JWH-073, with limited regulation (Heltsley et al., 2012). Athletes require more information and advice, as product labels can be misleading about whether they contain THC, meaning there are risks in terms of violating anti-doping rules (Mareck et al., 2021).

Additionally, CBD (300 mg) has been shown to induce changes in glucocorticoids as cortisol in humans (Zuardi A. W. et al., 1993), one of the primary homeostatic regulators of the inflammatory response to injury (Yeager et al., 2010). This is supported by a recent narrative review in sports, suggesting the potential anti-inflammatory effect in humans and the possible role in the performance of the athletes (McCartney et al., 2020). This affirmation is theoretically based on the suggested CBD capacity to interact with receptors involved in controlling inflammation as CB1 cannabinoid, CB2 cannabinoid, adenosine A2A, and also in reducing the levels of some cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and downregulating overreactive immune cells reducing the impact of collateral inflammatory damage of tissues (Booz, 2011; Hill et al., 2012; Burstein, 2015).

There is also evidence suggesting the CBD potential to promote the release of arachidonic acid, leading to greater healing capacity as a result of core regulation of growth signals mediated by proresolving substances, such as lipoxin A4 and 15d-PGJ2 (Burstein, 2015).

It is also known that the interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress underlies many human diseases due to tissue and organ damage. In this regard, in sports, it is hypothesized that CBD-related inhibitions in oxidative stress and neuroinflammation could have some therapeutic potential in sports research (Gamelin et al., 2020).

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369499


Study: Cannabis use for exercise recovery in trained individuals: a survey study

111 participants (Mean Age: 31) completed an anonymous survey. All participants were regularly using cannabis (CBD and/or THC) as well as were currently exercising.

Result: Ninety-three percent of participants felt that CBD use assisted them with recovery from exercise, while 87% of participants felt the same regarding THC use. 

CBD and THC have the potential to enhance recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise due to analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to enhance sleep quality (YorkWilliams et al. 2019).

Further survey data also suggests that cannabis-using athletes feel that THC and CBD use can promote feelings of relaxation and enhanced well-being with minimal perceived adverse effects (Zeiger et al. 2019).

Both CBD and THC use have been demonstrated to acutely down-regulate release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α) and interleukin (IL)-12 (Ajrawat et al. 2022).

Furthermore, habitual cannabis users have displayed lower circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of global inflammation, when compared to non-users (Alshaarawy and Anthony 2015).

When participants were asked, ‘Do you feel that cannabis in the form of CBD aids in your recovery?’ 93% stated ‘yes’ while 7% stated, “I’m not sure.’

Cannabis has been suggested to assist with pain management, inflammation, and sleep, all of which are essential for recovery. YorkWilliams et al. (2019) reported 77.6% (481/620) of their participants agreed or strongly agreed that THC use enhanced recovery from exercise, while 16.3% (101/620) were neutral and 6.1% (38/620) disagreed or disagreed strongly (YorkWilliams et al. 2019).

Interestingly, Isenmann et al. (2021) had participants consume CBD and then perform an intense acute bout of resistance exercise. Twenty-four hours, 48 h, and 72 h following the intensive acute bout of resistance exercise, participants completed a one-repetition maximum strength test (1RM) (Isenmann et al. 2021). Isenmann et al. (2021) noted that following consumption of CBD that the 1RM was maintained, and slightly higher, then the initial measurement at 72 h (Isenmann et al. 2021).

"One of the primary purported roles of CBD or THC is pain management. Regarding acute pain management and muscle soreness, the data are sparse. A study by Kasper et al. (2020) demonstrated that in professional rugby players, (133/517) 26% used CBD. While 80% of athletes using CBD felt it would improve recovery and sleep, only 40% reported benefits in these areas. Additionally, only 15% of athletes reported pain relief with CBD consumption (Kasper et al. 2020)."

Cuttler et al. (2022) reported reduced acute pain severity by 42–49% when cannabis was inhaled.

Source: https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-023-00198-5


  1. Possible Extension Of Life In Patients With Glioblastoma

Possible extension of life in those with glioblastoma: Treatment with a combination of CBD and THC may help extend the life of some people with an aggressive form of cancer called glioblastoma. Survival at 1 year was 83% for nabiximols (cannabis) compared to 44% for placebo-treated patients.

Study: A phase 1b randomised, placebo-controlled trial of nabiximols cannabinoid oromucosal spray with temozolomide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma